An Interview with Prof. Garikipati: How a Flipped Classroom in Ann Arbor Can Reach a Global Audience

Krishna Garikipati is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering, and Mathematics at the University of Michigan. His work draws from nonlinear mechanics, materials physics, applied mathematics, and numerical methods. He is particularly interested in problems of mathematical biology, biophysics, and materials physics.

Professor Garikipati has recorded over 250 video lectures related to two of his on campus courses: Introduction to Finite Element Methods and Continuum Physics. Professor Garikipati has used the videos in the Intro Finite Element Methods class to bring a flipped learning experience to his students. In addition to their use as course material, both series of lectures are being viewed by students, post-docs, faculty colleagues, and researchers within and outside U-M to enter new research areas. Each video focuses on a single topic, such as the “Pythagorean Theorem” for Intro to Finite Element Methods or the “Lagrangian description of motion” for the Continuum Physics lecture series. The videos are generally between 5 – 20 minutes long and are presented in a style similar to U-M MOOC and Khan Academy lecture videos. The videos were created with the support of the Office of the Provost’s Digital Education and Innovation initiative, and the Division of Integrative Systems Design in the College of Engineering.

Professor Garikipati has graciously agreed to share some of his flipped learning insights with us and his motivations for sharing the lectures as open education resources.

Screen capture from Boundary Conditions (01.03) video by Krishna Garikipati. CC BY NC

Why did you decide to flip these classes?

Even with advanced classes, I would hazard that upward of 90% of the lecture time is used to cover the same material each time the class is taught. This prevents us from delving deeply into the most interesting and challenging questions, and also from embarking on new subject matter over the years. With the flipped classroom, students can get to this foundational, and repetitive, material on their own time, while we use actual class time for the really deep/novel ideas.

How has the flipped learning approach changed your time with students in the classroom, and how have your students responded?

I still use nearly all the time available to me in the classroom. However, it is used to quickly summarize and integrate the lectures that the students have watched most recently, or to take some ideas and work them out in much greater detail than I could do before. I have found, while lecturing, that the students’ preparation is significantly better. The classroom lecture turns out to be much more sophisticated. By and large the students appreciate the ability to watch the foundational material at their own pace. For some this is faster, for others slower than the pace that I would previously set in class. Most notably, they like being able to replay very short segments as many times as necessary to grasp a particularly nettlesome idea. This is the sort of thing that one cannot do in class: How many times will you ask the instructor to explain the notion of mathematical consistency under the glare of your fellow students?

Screen capture from Consistency of the Finite Element Method (05.03) video by Krishna Garikipati. CC BY NC

What advice do you have for faculty members who are interested in flipping their classrooms?

It is a lot of work. Recording lectures takes about 1 ½ times the length of the actual lectures–when all goes well. The format requires you to leave behind your classroom persona and make the camera “your friend.” Until that happened, I felt really quite at sea. In my case, it helped that some of my graduate students, post-docs, and others who worked in closely allied groups had an interest in watching the recordings as a live audience. Google Hangouts allowed us to do that. They would flag me down (literally) when they had a question, and that created an alternate environment to replace the classroom feel. Finally, it now takes me more preparation to enter a live classroom in which the students have just watched some of my recorded lectures. I need to remind myself of what they saw, what notation I used for certain quantities, and what remarks I made. Previously, I could think through the mathematical treatment and physical arguments just before class, and allow the mathematics and physics to guide me through the actual lecture. Now I watch the entire lecture material that they have watched. Speeding up the video by a factor of two helps, but not much more. The payback, however, is tremendous. In my case it allowed the class to rise to a level of sophistication that I had not expected. I would do it again, and intend to!

Why did you decide to select a Creative Commons license for the videos?

Both my series of lectures are now available via Open.Michigan and YouTube. The Creative Commons-Attribution-NonCommercial license allows anybody to use it for instruction or to gain entry to a new area of research. The reach that this provides to one’s scholarly work is actually unparalleled by any other means that we would have employed previously. This is what academics is about.

What excites you the most about sharing the videos openly on Open.Michigan, YouTube, and beyond?

These are advanced topics–especially Continuum Physics. It is very fulfilling to be able to reach advanced graduate students, post-docs, established researchers, and even professors the world over in these topics. I know of some who have used these lectures as preparation as they have entered new areas of research. This is the most exciting aspect to sharing the lectures via these forums. I would not have been able to reach this wide of an audience otherwise.

Screen capture of YouTube playlist for Lectures on Continuum Physics

From Flipped Learning to Open Sharing

Open.Michigan is thrilled to share Professor Garikipati’s recordings because of their high quality, comprehensiveness, and because this emerging pedagogical approach has been shown to improve student learning. If faculty members and staff involved in the production of flipped learning experiences address copyright issues and licensing in their pre-production processes, then they will have the opportunity to maximize the educational impact of their flipped learning resources by publishing those resources on platforms like Open.Michigan, YouTube, and iTunes U. It’s really exciting to have Professor Garikipati’s courses illustrate this idea, and it will be very interesting to see how the growing demand and infrastructure for flipped learning at U-M influences the University’s culture of sharing.

View Professor Garikipati’s courses on Open.Michigan:

An Interview with Prof. Severance: MOOC & OER Proponent on "Sharing the Value that we Produce at U-M"

Professor Charles Severance (“Dr. Chuck”) is a clinical associate professor at the University of Michigan School of Information (UMSI). Dr. Chuck has already made legendary contributions to the OER and MOOC movements. He’s held “office hours” with small groups of MOOC students from all over the world, was the first U-M faculty member to apply CC licenses to materials offered within Coursera, authored two openly-licensed textbooks (Python for Informatics, and High Performance Computing), was a leading developer of and evangelist for the IMS Learning Tools Interoperability (LTI) standard, and has reached thousands of learners through Dr. Chuck Online, P2PU, Open.Michigan, and the iBooks store.

So what’s next for Dr. Chuck?

Programming for Everybody, a new U-M MOOC scheduled to start on Coursera on April 10, 2014. This free course will focus on teaching the basics of Python programming (with no complex math) to beginners from all backgrounds. Participants can expect to learn both how to program and where these skills can be applied. But that’s just the beginning of the story.

Programming for Everybody is also a completely remixable MOOC that’s taking the “open” in massive online open courses to the next level. All of the materials within the course, from the syllabus and textbook, to the videos and the auto grading software, are being shared with Creative Commons licenses, thereby encouraging everyone in the world to reuse and remix the materials for their own teaching and learning purposes. The remixability of the materials will be further enabled by pre-packaged “remixer kits” that can be loaded into learning management systems such as Blackboard and Moodle. This unique delivery of the course’s materials aims it at two primary audiences: students interested in learning Python and programming fundamentals, and teachers interested in using the materials in their own classrooms.

I caught up with Dr. Chuck to discuss Programming for Everybody, MOOCs, and OER in more detail.

What excites you the most about teaching “Programming for Everybody” as a MOOC?

I have long felt that the world needed a “Programming Literacy” course to help give people an “on ramp” to a better understanding of and increasingly technical world. I have been greatly enjoying teaching SI502 – Networked Computing at the U-M School of Information to incoming MSI students with no technical background. SI502 has been a great proving ground for my materials and approaches. I felt that the “on ramp to technology” class I wanted to teach fell somewhere between a junior year in high school and first year freshman level course. Teaching Programming for Everybody (PR4E) as a MOOC lets me interact with students in high school, college, and adults who want to come back to school and learn technology. I could never create an on-campus class in a physical location that would allow me to engage the highly diverse group of students I hope to see in PR4E.

Image courtesy of Dr. Chuck Severance under a CC BY license.

How do you see MOOC platforms and Open Educational Resources (OER) working together to form learning communities?

MOOC platforms are a wonderful way to promote an idea. By combining the strength of the Michigan brand with so many other wonderful schools – Coursera attracts a lot of students attention and gets students to the point where they will take a bit of a “leap” and sign up for a class. One of my concerns with OER materials is that potential faculty adopters around the world often think of them as somehow “not as good.”  I want to use the MOOC to show just how great my open materials are and give teachers who experience the MOOC a reason to make use of the open materials in their own classes.

Have your experiences teaching MOOCs and publishing OER impacted your approaches to teaching and sharing with on-campus students?

I have been publishing my course materials as OERs from the beginning. I long ago realized that it was far more important to insure a broad reach of the materials rather than to waste time trying to find avenues of commercial gain from my lecture materials. Also people will help you improve your materials if you show that you are not trying to be selfish about your work. If I have another faculty member cover one of my classes, they take my slides, improve them and then give them back to me under CC-BY. So having guest lectures improves my course materials.

Image courtesy of Dr. Chuck Severance under a CC BY-NC license

Why is it important for U-M faculty members to participate in MOOCs and to publish OER?

Leading public universities like U-M need to set the tone for higher education worldwide. We operate in the public trust for the citizens of the State of Michigan and indirectly for the world. We have a responsibility to give back value to the citizens of Michigan and any other stakeholders that invest in U-M. I think that OERs are a great example of sharing the value that we produce at the U-M.

As someone with so much experience with both MOOCs and OER, what advice do you have for faculty members who are interested in exploring these concepts?

Working with Open.Michigan in 2009 to publish OER from my MSI courses absolutely laid the ground work for the success of IHTS and the success of PR4E. Without that clearance and the associated education of me as a faculty member on how to do OER slides – it would have been far more difficult to do PR4E. So I like to make sure to put a Creative Commons License on my PowerPoints as soon as I start building them. When I record a video or audio of one of my lectures, my second slide is always an Open.Michigan / Creative Commons license image. In the lecture audio I specifically read the license within the first 10 seconds of the audio.  Remember that if you say nothing about the copyright it defaults to “All Rights Reserved,” so you must be explicit. One way or another, be mindful of the copyright decisions you are making. And remember that Open.Michigan is a guide and helper to faculty all along their path to open materials.

Programming for Everybody starts on April 10, Register Today!

Programming for Everybody starts on April 10, 2014. Click on “Learn for Free” and register to join Dr. Chuck and a cohort of beginning programmers on Coursera. Download OER materials from Programming for Everybody on Open.Michigan and start remixing!

Celebrating Open Education Week 2014!

A celebration of the global open education movement, Open Education Week showcases the impact of openly-licensed content on teaching and learning worldwide. The third annual Open Education Week, organized by the OCW Consortium, takes place March 10-15 with local and online events around the world.

Open Education Week globe

Educational Materials Anyone Can Reuse, Adapt

At Open.Michigan, we work with faculty, students, and staff to openly license their work, so that the public can remix, use, and adapt the content to suit their own needs. In 2009, our dScribe Matthew Simpson, wrote a blog post, “Why Open Matters.” In his essay he cited four major areas of importance, including health equity, learning from other students, working in the global health setting, and improving health. It was true then, and it is true now.

OER can take a lot of forms, including  lectures, reading lists, syllabi, instructional modules, and simulations. Our Open.Michigan OER repository includes thousands of these resources you can browse, download, use, and share.

Did you know Wikipedia is the world’s largest and most used OER? When you make your work available as OER, you enable others to use your work on YOUR terms.

Free Textbooks for All Learners

Openly-licensed materials help learners. With the soaring cost of textbooks, openly-licensed textbooks become important to help keep education attainable. There are several University of Michigan courses that use open textbooks that are free and are available in the Open.Michigan repository, like a wikibook about parallel spectral numerical methods; statistics workbooks and lecture notes; an open textbook about python for informatics; a book about household politics in early Early Modern England; and many moreHere is another great collection of open textbooks.

Creating OER through Collaborations

Frequently, Open.Michigan partners with an individual or a department to create some amazing resources, including books:

Another way OER appears in the academic realm is as Open Course Ware (OCW). This happens when an entire course is released via Creative Commons licenses. A good example of OCW in our Open.Michigan collection is SI 410 – Ethics and Information Technology. Paul Conway, associate professor, School of Information, was the first University of Michigan faculty member to share all his courses as OCW. Find out why.

Making a Global Impact

The global impact of openly-licensed information cannot be overlooked nor underestimated. Established in 2008, the African Health OER Network  is a collaboration between the University of Michigan, the University of Michigan School of Dentistry, and African health sciences institutes. The Health OER Network develops and distributes health education information throughout Africa. One example of a successful collaboration utilized low-cost technology to reach areas with no or limited internet using a device called Raspberry Pi.

Translations play a big role in the African Health OER Network. Read an interview with Eve Nabulya: Luganda Translations For My Community. A large-scale project using crowdsourcing and volunteers launched in 2013 to bring multilingual video captions to the Open.Michigan YouTube Channel. Thanks to volunteers, more than 139 non-English captions have been translated into 18 languages.

Hope you have a great Open Education Week! Keep up the good work!

Digital Storytelling: Using Narrative and Technology to Enhance Learning

This blog post was co-written by Airong Luo, Ph.D., research area specialist lead, U-M Medical School Information Services Learning Program, and Stephanie Dascola, editorial assistant, Open.Michigan, Office of Enabling Technologies, a unit within the University of Michigan Medical School Information Services organization.

Storytelling is an effective medium to capture and share tacit knowledge, enhance reflective learning, and promote communities of practice. By incorporating multimedia, digital stories strengthen storytellers’ ability to make and share their narratives through multiple modes.

Palliative and end-of-life care involves addressing four dimensions of quality of life—the physical, the psychological, the social and the spiritual. Unfortunately, less than 15% of those who deliver end-of-life care have received professional training on the subject. Instead of traditional didactic and Socratic methods, innovators have called for interactive learning environments that use reflective and experiential teaching methods for addressing the attitudinal barriers that prevent application of core palliative care knowledge. This project started as a way to marry the strength of narrative and technology, and has the potential to encourage reflection and interactive learning and thereby foster students’ palliative care competencies. The process of creating, sharing, and discussing digital stories can therefore be a bridge linking abstract concepts to personal experiences that, overall, enhances the learning experience. Post graduation, nurses may be able to transfer what they learn through their storytelling experience to their professional practice.

A collaborative team including Airong Luo, Ph.D., research area specialist lead, U-M Medical School Information Services Learning Program, Steve Lonn, Ph.D., assistant director of the U-M USE Lab and library analytics specialist, Linda Strodtman, Ph.D., R.N., assistant professor emerita of nursing, U-M School of Nursing, Deborah Price, R.N., M.S., clinical instructor in nursing, U-M School of Nursing, and Elizabeth Brough, Ph.D., R.N., clinical instructor in nursing, U-M School of Nursing, conducted two pilot studies to understand how digital storytelling affects nursing students’ learning of palliative care concepts during the Fall 2012 term and Winter 2013 term. Findings from these studies were presented at U-M Enriching Scholarship 2013 and Palliative Care Collaborative, 7th Annual Regional Conference. A rich discussion was had by the approximately 50 health professionals in attendance, and they also talked about the methodology and future uses of this method for legacy work.

Dr. Luo is also a researcher at Open.Michigan, part of the Office of Enabling Technologies, a unit within the University of Michigan Medical School Information Services organization, that encourages researchers, learners, and instructors to maximize the impact and reach of their scholarly work through open sharing. One aspect of the digital storytelling project was that students learned how to find and properly attribute openly-licensed images for use in their assignments. Many mentioned that they found it helpful, including one of the students, “I liked that I was allowed to integrate a personal story and apply it to concepts that we learned. I also enjoy making the visual presentations.”

“We hope to develop a repository of digital stories that enable collaborative learning for students and health professionals from different countries. Digital storytelling will offer learners opportunities to acquire tacit knowledge including communication skills, understanding and respecting different cultures, which they cannot learn from lectures and textbooks. After talking to our collaborators in China and South Africa, we decided to start with the pilot projects at U-M to understand the impact of digital storytelling on teaching and learning and how instructors, researchers and technologies can enhance educational impact of digital storytelling,” said Dr. Luo.

Learn more about:

Open Access Week 2013, October 21-27: Redefining Impact

Open.Michigan welcomes guest blogger Jacob Glenn, a science librarian at the University of Michigan’s Shapiro Science Library. Jacob is blogging on behalf of the library’s Open Access Committee, which is responsible for organizing Open Access Week activities here on campus. For more information about the committee and about Open Access Week, please contact the committee’s chair, Jean Song.

October 21-27 will see a number of opportunities for University of Michigan faculty, staff, and students to get involved during Open Access (OA) Week. Now in its sixth year, OA Week is an international effort organized by SPARC and programmed by libraries and research institutions worldwide. With events taking place both online and in many locations around the globe, OA Week is a time for the U-M community to find out about the benefits of Open Access and to share what they’ve learned with colleagues. This year the University of Michigan Library has put together an exciting lineup of events for OA Week in collaboration with other campus units.

The week will open with a keynote by Brandon Weiner, co-founder and Executive Director of Creative Rights, a local non-profit organization that provides free legal representation, educational opportunities and project coordination services for Michigan artists and creators. Creative Rights helps artists by pairing them up with attorneys who have a strong background in the arts, a model inspired by its founders’ particular combination of legal expertise and artistic interests. Brandon’s talk will examine the practical and existential obstacles encountered when implementing projects with strong Open Access principles.

This year’s OA Week theme is “Redefining Impact,” a reminder of changing approaches to the evaluation of scholarly work driven by the possibilities of publishing on the open Web. On that theme, capping the week will be a closing keynote by Mike Buschman, co-founder of Plum Analytics, a company building the next generation of metrics for scholarly research. Plum’s metrics cover a wide variety of artifacts — much more than just books or journal articles. Source code, figures, online videos and many other research products are tracked and author level metrics are aggregated into a researcher graph. In his talk Mike will reflect on two years of experience collecting, analyzing, and visualizing alternative metrics for academic research, showing how those metrics are being used today by research institutions as diverse as the University of Pittsburgh and the Smithsonian, scholarly publishers, and individual researchers.

Naturally there will be plenty of exciting events in between, including lightning talks, a publishing workshop for Medical School faculty and a Wikipedia Edit-a-thon. See the complete schedule of events for times, locations, and links to registration.

Interview with Eve Nabulya: Luganda Translations For My Community

Back in January, we launched our translation pilot for Open.Michigan, focusing on two video series for health education. We are thrilled to report that the translation activities are still going strong – 57 volunteers to date, 53 videos that include 128 completed translations covering 11 languages, and expansion into our family medicine video series. We are amazed at the skill and dedication of our volunteer translators.

Ms. Evelyn Nabulya, an Assistant Lecturer in the Department of Literature at Makerere University in Uganda, is one of our distinguished volunteers. Eve was in Michigan at the time for the African Presidential Scholars Program, along with Mr. Karfalah Johnson and others. We were absolutely delighted when Eve offered to translate some of the disaster management videos authored by the East Africa HEALTH Alliance into Luganda. Luganda (part of the Bantu family of languages) is spoken by over 5 million people in Uganda. The Luganda translations enable us to reach a much larger audience of health professionals and community organizers within Uganda. What’s more, there are very few open educational resources worldwide available in Luganda, so Eve’s contribution is especially impactful.

Eve graciously agreed to share with us her motivations and suggestions for translating the disaster management videos into Bantu languages. (Article below is CC BY Eve Nabulya. Photo is All Rights Reserved by Eve Nabulya, used here with permission.)

Rendering one text in another language is an enriching experience as one grapples with a number of decisions regarding the best way to reconcile the stylistic, linguistic, and social meanings of the source text with the translation. I found out about the Open.Michigan Translation Project when I was on a fellowship at the University of Michigan through its African Presidential Scholars Program (UMAPS), which is designed to enhance collaboration between early career faculty from Ghana, Liberia, Uganda and South Africa and students and faculty at the University of Michigan. At first I thought the project considered only a few of the African languages, but when I learned that it was open to all languages, I could not forfeit such a good opportunity to make an input. Apart from the primary goal of availing learning materials in multiple languages, this initiative is actually projecting, documenting, and promoting languages that would not have otherwise easily made it to a global platform. I therefore consider my efforts in translating the disaster management videos from the East Africa HEALTH Alliance from English into Luganda as a way of giving back to my community, many of whose grassroots leaders would prefer training in local languages. In addition, availability of educational materials in local languages is likely to promote use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) among those with less formal education.

In Uganda, ICT integration in education is a new phenomenon that is often entangled with infrastructural challenges. Recent studies have revealed that only 45% of the learning activities at Makerere University use electronic resources. Barriers include insufficient access to computers and other devices, limited bandwidth, and lack of necessary skills. However, with the implementation of learner-centred approaches now being encouraged in all colleges, the situation is rapidly changing.

The language situation in Uganda presents complications in the dissemination of information and learning materials to people at the grassroots. Luganda, English, and Kiswahili are the languages most widely spoken in Uganda but there are approximately 30 additional languages spoken in the country. English is an official language, with about 40% of the country’s population able to competently communicate in it. Luganda, the second most common, is spoken by approximately one-third of the population. Although the portion of Ugandans fluent in English has risen in the recent past with the introduction of the Universal Primary Education (UPE) and Universal Secondary Education (USE) policies, English remains a language of the elite and is not used on the streets, in public transport means, or in social gatherings except those targeting specialised audiences. However, the UPE policy allows use of indigenous languages in instruction during in the first four years of school. Thereafter, learners with interest in specific languages can pick them up at secondary school level and pursue them to university level.

The Open.Michigan translation project included multiple health education video collections. I selected the disaster management videos because they were co-authored by my peers at Makerere University. To date, I have translated three videos: Intro to Disaster Management Training, Introduction to Disasters, and Epidemics.

Projects such as this, which aim to increase the volume of learning materials in local Ugandan languages, would achieve much by partnering with universities. At the moment, Makerere University alone graduates over 100 students in Bantu languages every year. Given that Luganda is one of the two local languages considered by the recent Constituent Assembly as potential national languages, any efforts that produce literature and resources in it, especially learning materials, draw Uganda closer to solving her language dilemma.

School of Open, Round 2: Open for sign-up through August 4, Classes begin August 5

Hi Open.Michigan Community!  Please help support the School of Open by signing up for one of their courses and sharing this information with your colleagues and friends.


The School of Open is offering its second round of facilitated courses! Starting today, you can sign up for 7 courses during a two week period; sign-up closes Sunday,  August 4 and courses start on or after Monday, August 5. All courses are free to take and open to reuse under the CC BY-SA license.

The School of Open is a community of volunteers from around the world passionate about peer learning, openness, and the intersection of the two. These volunteers helped launch the School of Open in March. And now they invite you to join them in the following courses.

To sign up for any of these courses, simply go to the course page and click ‘Start Course’ under its left Navigation column.

Copyright 4 Educators (AUS) (7 weeks) – This course is open to anyone in the world, but will focus on Australian copyright law as pertains to education. This course will equip Australian educators with the copyright knowledge to confidently use copyright material in the classroom. It will also introduce OER and teach you how to find and adapt free, useful resources for your classes. Facilitators: Delia Browne and Jessica Smith

Copyright 4 Educators (US) (6 weeks) – This course is open to anyone in the world, but will focus on US copyright law as pertains to education. The course is taught around practical case scenarios faced by teachers when using copyright material in their day-to-day teaching. Facilitator: Laura Quilter

Creative Commons for K-12 Educators (7 weeks) – This course will help K-12 educators find and adapt free, useful resources for their classes. It will also help them incorporate activities that teach their students digital world skills — such as finding, remixing, and sharing digital media and materials on the web. Facilitator: Jane Park

Designing Collaborative Workshops (4 weeks) – This course brings together case studies of some great collaborative workshops that have been run in the past with an open invitation for you to share your own experiences with either running or participating in a workshop that worked well (or didn’t). Facilitators: Mick Fuzz and Jane Park

Writing Wikipedia Articles: The Basics and Beyond (6 weeks) – If you can read Wikipedia, you can learn to build it! In this course, you will learn about the software, the rules, and the cultural values that drive and support this ubiquitous and community-built online encyclopedia. It will focus on articles about openness in education. Facilitators: Pete Forsyth and Sara Frank Bristow *This course runs on Wikipedia; follow instructions to sign up at the course page

Open Science: An Introduction (4 weeks) – This course is a collaborative learning environment meant to introduce the idea of Open Science to young scientists, academics, and makers of all kinds. Facilitator: Billy Meinke

Why Open? (3 weeks) – This course will facilitate discussion on the different meanings of openness, how openness applies to different domains, as well as participants’ views of what it means to do things openly. Participants will engage in open activities, and examine the benefits and potential issues with openness. Facilitators: Christina HendricksSimeon OrikoJeanette LeePete Forsyth, and Jane Park

Too busy to take a course this time around? Don’t worry, we’re around for a while. Sign up to be notified when we launch our next round of facilitated courses, or take a stand-alone course at your own pace, at anytime.

Don’t see a course you want to take but are full of good ideas? Help us build the courses you want to see with others. Join the School of Open discussion list and introduce yourself and your “open” interest.

Forward this to your friends

Want to take a course with your friends? Do these 3 things and call it a day.

1. Tweet this: Open for sign-up: free facilitated #schoolofopen courses on #OER #openscience #wikipedia #copyright #whyopen

2. Blog/forward this: School of Open, Round 2 is open for sign-up! Take a free, facilitated online course on open science, collaborative workshop design, open educational resources, copyright for educators, Wikipedia, CC licenses, why open? — and more! at Take this course with me: [link to course of your choice here]. Read more about the launch at

3. Print out a copy of this pdf and pin it to the bulletin board at your work, school, or local coffee shop.